Policiy Recommendations for Enhancing Economic Development in the Sonora-Arizona Border Region
PRELIMINARY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ENHANCING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE ARIZONA-SONORA BORDER TAKING AS EXAMPLE THE
(Draft Paper (please dont quote) compiled by Bernardo Mendez-Lugo, Mexican Deputy Consul in
Building Security and Prosperity in the US-Mexican Border Arizona-Sonora
This draft paper is based in the framework of an existing Document of the
In the course of these discussions a number of avenues for new or better public involvement became evident, touching on several common cross-cutting themes.
Higher-Wage Jobs through better regional development
The overarching need in the region is to raise incomes through the promotion of local and regional economic development of both sides of the Arizona-Sonora border. This will require both fostering the growth of higher-wage jobs and the training of the workforce to fill these positions as well as produce an economic policy to attract private investment and to enable especific incentives for relocations of corporations and new business and family business. These efforts need to build on strategic industries for which the region has some natural advantages such as in serving a growing population or particular niche markets in U.S.-Mexico trade.
Importantly, the federal and state governments should move to recognize the need to increase incomes in this region and begin to extend to the entire region the tools to attract and develop new jobs:
The federal government should extend the empowerment zone designation and funding to all Arizona Border counties.
The Arizona-Sonora Commission should recognize the goal of raising per-capita income in the Border region as part of a new Strategic Economic Development Plan for the Arizona-Sonora Border region in coordination with the Mexican government at its three levels, federal, state and municipal.
The Arizona-Mexico Commission and its role in the Arizona-Sonora Border Development
The Arizona-Mexico Commission (AMC) is about connecting communities and changing business through advocacy, trade, networking and information. We are
The AMC is mission-driven and chaired by
The AMC’s mission is to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for residents of
AMC membership consists of public and private sector leaders from throughout
We promote a strong, cooperative relationship with
The plan consists in an initial proposal of several strategic initiatives and strives to advance our mission beyond the activities traditionally conducted within the bi-national committee structure; advance the Governor’s overall trade and development agenda; and secure more federal and foundation funding for
• The Border Infrastructure Initiative aims to develop the Arizona Border Infrastructure Project (BIP) with an online database to be a single source of information for
• The Government Affairs Initiative allows the AMC to border community and infrastructure projects to funding resources. The initiative includes:
1) the Arizona Grants Access Tool and Experts Source (AzGATES) database that defines national public and private funding sources and
2) a communications strategy to educate our congressional delegation and state legislature on priorities for
• The Inter-American Initiative identifies high-priority markets in
• The Membership Initiative ensures the long-term organizational and financial viability of the AMC through membership value development and marketing communications.
Regional Development Policies for both sides of the Border Sonora-Arizona
Other actions can help retain and grow high-skilled jobs in other sectors of the region's economy. Specifically:
· Within the Arizona Border counties, the U.S. Department of Defense should provide a special weighting in its assessment process of the impacts of base closings to reflect the extreme importance of high-skill, high-wage defense jobs to the Arizona-Sonora Border region. It is fair to recognize that the Defense Contract Management Agency has already several Mexican suppliers in the
The Arizona Legislature should require all state agencies to develop a plan for increasing their presence in the region, and to include the plans in every five-year strategic plan.
Particularly promising for the growth of high-skilled jobs in the Border region is increasing health care services. The region needs additional health care workers, and this industry includes many highly-skilled and highly-paid professionals. The Border Binational Health Program can be a key partner for increasing health services in both side of the border.
· State law should be amended to create the Border Health Institute, a center for Border health services coordination, education, and research serving the South of Arizona and
Office of Border Health
The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission (USMBHC) works toward political changes by creating awareness about the U.S. Mexico border, its people, and its environment.
It educates others about the unique challenges at the border through outreach efforts, data collection and analysis, and joint collaborative efforts with public and private partners in the border health community.
The USMBHC serves as a rallying point for shared concerns about the U.S.-Mexico border and as a catalyst for action to develop plans directed toward solving specific health related problems.
The primary goal of the USMBHC Arizona Delegation is to work toward strengthening and supporting current binational public health projects and programs along the Arizona-Sonora border which supports the Commission’s mission of providing international leadership to optimize health and quality of life along the United States-Mexico border. In collaboration with the Arizona Department of Health Services Office of Border Health, the Secretaria de Salud de
· Impacting border health access/Leadership
· Impacting border health research or data collection/Focus
· Impacting border health promotion/Venue
In addition to the strategic directions and principles, the USMBHC has identified outlets to achieve these directions and goals:
Health Promotion, Communication and Outreach
· Local Initiatives
Impacting Border Health Access
Through health promotion, communication and outreach, the USMBHC seeks to impact border health access and promote and provide international leadership along the border. Along the Arizona-Sonora border, our efforts to address border health access are the following:
Binational Health Councils
The USMBHC Arizona and Sonora Delegation Outreach Offices support meetings and program developments within the binational councils (COBINAS) including workforce development, and actively participate in the activities carried out by the three local COBINAS of San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora/Yuma County; Ambos Nogales; and Noreste de Sonora/Cochise County, Arizona and the trinational health council of the Tohono O’Odham Nation/West Pima County/Sasabe and Sonoita, Sonora
Health and Research Forums
The goal of the health forums is to provide binational discussion to address public health issues and problems that affect the Arizona-Sonora border populations. The forums will provide a wide range of information regarding specific regional disparities, models of excellence in addressing these needs, current research along the Arizona-Sonora Border region, the effects of migration on public health, and the current status of TB and HIV/AIDS on the border.
The proposed Arizona-Sonora Border Health Initiative (BHI) would be a partnership among existing Border health education institutions and service providers located in southern
The Arizona-Sonora Border region faces some of the most dire health conditions in the Western world. In the past,
Member agencies would include University of Arizona, Arizona State University, Arizona Health Sciences Center at Tucson, University of Arizona Medical Center, Pima Community College, Santa Cruz Community College, Cochise County Colleges, Yuma College, Pima Community College, and health service providers in southern Arizona, Universidad de Sonora, Colegio de Sonora and Medical institututions in northern Sonora.
The BHI would be ideally suited to coordinate health activities between southern
· The Legislatures of Arizona and
· The Arizona Higher Education Coordinating Board should review medical training needs in the Border region and make recommendations to the Legislature addressing any deficiencies.
These two actions will help identify and tap new markets for health care in the region. In addition, the growth of the health care industry will be promoted by improving access to health care insurance. It is feasible to grow a wide plan for health services for American Senior Citizens in
Study on Health Alert:
Infection Control - The ability to limit transmission of the influenza virus already exists in the health care settings – the appropriate and thorough application of infection control measures.
Clinical Guidelines - Early identification and appropriate medical intervention are essential for patients who present with suspect pandemic influenza symptoms.
Vaccine and Antiviral Distribution and Use - During a pandemic, vaccines and antivirals may or not be effective or available, will likely be in short supply and will have to be allocated on a priority basis.
Community and Travel-Related Disease Control - Public health interventions, such as quarantine and social distancing, will be necessary during a pandemic to slow the transmission of disease in the community.
Public Health Communications - Response officials will need to provide accurate and timely coordinated messages to the public leading up to, and during, a pandemic; an informed public is an asset to the overall response.
Workforce Support - Response agencies and organizations need to ensure the safety and well being of response personnel to ensure and sustained and effective response
Influenza Pandemic Information Management - Information management is the central nervous system of a complex response system, and a pandemic presents many needs for capturing, analyzing and sharing information.
Guidance for County and Tribal Health Departments - This guidance is designed to help spotlight important planning and response activities that are necessary at the local health department level. A Pilot Program can be explored with the Tohono Od’dham Nation that has a wide number of Health problems that need to be addressed as soon as possible.
Introduction and Background
Influenza pandemics struck three times in the 20th century causing varying degrees of increased illness and death over annual influenza outbreaks. Of particular note is the 1918 Pandemic, oft referred to as the Spanish Flu, where upwards of 50 million people died around the world and untold number of illnesses along with catastrophic disruption to society as a whole. It is likely that another influenza pandemic will occur sometime in the future. The State of
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “An influenza pandemic (or global pandemic) occurs when a new influenza virus subtype appears, against which no one is immune.” In past pandemics, influenza viruses have spread worldwide within months, and are expected to spread even more quickly given modern travel patterns.
There may be as little as one to six months warning before outbreaks begin in the
Through the Arizona Association of Counties and League of Arizona Cities and Towns and Local Business Chambers should be explored the establishment of pilot programs in selected Border sites to increase private health insurance coverage for small business employees. Contracts should be done directly with one or more provider networks to cover enrollees and to develop one or more local pools of small business employees whose employers are unable to offer health coverage because they cannot meet minimum participation requirements.
The Legislature should give county governments statutory authority to assume risk for purposes of implementing these pilot tests, as well as any other statutory changes that are needed.
Case Study: Mexican migrants in the
by Eliza Barclay
(September 2005) Both Mexicans who migrate to the United States for work as well as many Mexican migrants returning home are increasingly engaging in high–risk behaviors that put these groups at heightened vulnerability to HIV infection—especially since they are often outside the reach of conventional HIV prevention programs.
Two new studies from the California–Mexico AIDS Initiative—a joint program coordinated by the Mexican Secretariat of Health and the
While the sampling for both studies focused on people in high–risk venues such as bars, researchers are still concerned about the figures. "Based on the information we now have about migrants' sexual behavior, it appears that there is a greater possibility that the number of cases of AIDS will grow," says Dr. Carlos Magis, director of research at
Migrants Report Substantial Levels of High-Risk Behaviors
Previous research has shown that Mexican migrants in
About 10 percent of the men in the study reported sex with males, while 11 percent received money for sexual favors and 51 percent had used at least one illegal drug in the 12 months prior to the survey. Fifty–eight percent of the migrants reported unprotected vaginal sex in their last instance of intercourse with casual partners, while 85 percent reported unprotected vaginal sex with steady partners.
The migrants also reported that 25 percent of their sex partners were sex workers. And 20 percent of those surveyed reported sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol in their last instance of intercourse. Finally, chlamydia trachomatis—a sexually transmitted infection (STI)—was also detected among 3.2 percent of the migrants surveyed who were living and working in
Increased Vulnerability Among Originating Communities
As Sanchez and other UARP researchers track the behavior of migrants in
Earlier studies confirm these findings. According to a 1998 report by two researchers at the Colegio de Mexico, migrants tend to change their sexual practices because of their transient lifestyles and exposure to
In 2000, 12.7 percent of all AIDS cases registered in Mexico involved people who had previously lived in the United States.4 And according to a 2004 report prepared by Magis and other Mexican researchers, the majority of migrants' high–risk sexual behavior occurs when they are in the United States, where the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is greater—0.6 percent of the total population versus 0.3 percent in Mexico.5
Magis says CENSIDA is particularly concerned about the spread of HIV/AIDS in rural Mexican areas. Health services are scarce in many of Mexico's rural communities, and the available services are not equipped to handle the specific treatment and prevention required with HIV/AIDS.6 According to the 2004 report, the proportion of people with AIDS who had lived in the United States was higher among people living in rural areas (less than 5,000 inhabitants) than in urban areas (more than 500,000 residents). The two states with the highest rates of HIV/AIDS cases whose population has a pattern of residence in the
The Challenge of Prevention and Treatment for Migrants
Authorities on both sides of the border have found that tracking, reaching, and treating migrants with HIV/AIDS or who are at risk of contracting the disease is exceedingly difficult. The population is mobile, and services and outreach strategies vary widely between and within the two countries.
"We try to reach them once they return to
According to Charlene Doria–Ortiz, executive director of the Center for Health Policy Development in
"When migrants come in for treatment or services—if they come in, since many of them are afraid that using the health care system could get them deported if their status is in question—they may not know exactly what kind of treatment they had somewhere else, which can make it hard for practitioners to resume effective treatment," says Doria–Ortiz. She adds that some states' resources for public health are depleted more quickly than those in other states, making it harder for those former states—particularly Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas—to maintain outreach and prevention programs.
Magis adds that other factors also increase migrants' chances of contracting HIV/AIDS. "They don't speak the language, their migratory status hinders their access to health services, they think that health services are only available to legal immigrants, and they develop drug and alcohol addictions while they are away from home and isolated," he says of these populations.
Beginning to Address the Problem on Both Sides of the Border
Despite these challenges, health authorities on both sides of the border have begun to address the issue and find ways to combat the problem. For instance, the Border Planning and Evaluation Group (BPEG) at the University of Texas–El Paso (UTEP) is working with health care providers and capacity building programs to find solutions in treatment and prevention in
"The solutions have been few and far between over the last 10 years," said Rebeca Ramos, a public health specialist with BPEG. "We focus on building capacity among health care providers and alternative outreach programs, including peer–led programs."
The Promovisión Program—a collaborative effort between UTEP, the United States–Mexico Border Health Association, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—uses Spanish–speaking community health workers (called Promotores) to act as liaisons between HIV/AIDS patients, at–risk migrants, immigrants, and health care providers.
Magis and other researchers believe that prevention services would be most effective if offered in the
"What we need is something like the empowerment zones that have been developed for economic development purposes by the federal government in the
Eliza Barclay is a freelance journalist based in
- A summary of the two studies is available at the University Wide AIDS Research Program website (http://uarp.ucop.edu), accessed on Aug. 24, 2005.
- Carlos Magis–Rodríguez et al., "HIV/AIDS Risk Factors for Injection Drug Users in
," BC Revista Salud Fronteriza 2 (1997): 31–4. Tijuana
- Carlos Magis–Rodríguez, Enrique Bravo–Garcia, and Pilar el Rivera, "AIDS in Mexico in the year 2000," in The Mexican Response to AIDS: Best Practices, ed. Patricia Uribe and Carlos Magis–Rodríguez (Mexico City: National Council for the Prevention and Control of AIDS, AIDS Angles Series, 2000): 13–26.
- Carlos Magis–Rodríguez et al., "Migration and AIDS in
: An Overview Based on Recent Evidence," Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 37, Supplement 4 (2004): 1–11. Mexico
- Magis–Rodríguez et al., "Migration and AIDS in
: An Overview Based on Recent Evidence." Mexico
- V.N. Salgado de Snyder, "Migracion, sexualidad y SIDA en mujeres de origen rural: Sus Implicationes Psicosociales" (Migration, Sexuality and AIDS Among Women of Rural Origin: Psychosocial Implications), in Sexualities in Mexico: Some Approximations From the Social Science Perspective, ed. I. Szasz and S. Lerner (Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, 1998): 155–71.
- Magis–Rodríguez et al., "Migration and AIDS in
: An Overview Based on Recent Evidence." Mexico
Better chances of Economic Development with Better Workforce Skills
The goal of increasing the number of higher-wage jobs in the Border region will quickly collide with the reality of the Border's workforce unless significant efforts are made to upgrade workforce skills. These efforts must be directed not only at today's workers, but at tomorrow's as well. This means developing our youth into the workforce of tomorrow through improvements in public education, providing appropriate higher educational facilities and experiences for those coming out of the public school system, and addressing the continuing problem of upgrading the skills of those currently in the workforce. Crucial to these efforts at all stages--public education, higher education and worker training--is improving the level of Border workforce trainers' skills. The
· State law should be enhanced to help
The extension of this program would benefit all
At a minimum, an effort should be made to recognize that the high growth and low property wealth in the Border region prevent access to the revenue necessary to build facilities, and assistance should be made available in this regard to districts in the Border region.
This would not affect funds from the settlement proposed to be used for health care purposes.
· State law should be amended to enhance and expande Arizona Community and Technical Colleges in Nogales, Yuma and Douglas similar to the facilities at some public and private campuses in, Tucson, Scottsdale, Phoenix and Prescott.
· State law should be amended to create a state grant fund for facilities and equipment of community and technical colleges in border counties.
A special program to provide facilities funding could be developed, using the South Arizona/Border Initiative as a precedent. This initiative can be key to respond to enhance higher education in
In applying for funds, the local district would demonstrate: how the funds would be used, the local demand for education and training, and partnerships with local businesses to meet training and educational needs.
· State law should be amended to require public university regents and presidents to improve educator preparation programs and coordinate these plans with the State Board of Educator Certification's (SBEC) intervention and assistance strategy.
· All colleges of education at
Stricter accountability measures imposed by the State Board of Educator Certification (SBEC) on educator preparation will take effect in September 2010. That month, SBEC plans to place universities with too many students failing to pass the state's teacher certification exam on "Accredited--Under Review" status.
The Board plans to send intervention teams composed of faculty volunteers to recommend improvements and provide technical assistance to help universities improve student scores rather than risk loss of accreditation or even the possible elimination of approved teacher educator programs.
The regents of
College and university administrators faced with unacceptably poor performance on the state's teacher certification exam should advise their academic deans to devise pre-tests that identify student weaknesses and prepare them for passing the certification exam on their first try.
Offering test preview classes in a university is not without precedent. Accounting Faculty in
Similar approaches would be to buy practice ExCET exams, administer a pre-test, provide workshops to improve identified weaknesses, and test again to assess improvements. The SBEC has developed practice tests for elementary comprehensive, elementary and secondary professional development, and secondary history and math, with additional tests planned. Universities that want to use the practice tests pay for them on a sliding scale, based on their ability to pay and the number of teacher candidates taking the practice tests. Students preparing for the ExCET exams in this manner improved their test scores significantly.
· Improve funding for adult education programs and basic workplace literacy training.
State funding for basic education can support training for just over 400,000 adults statewide. The Border in both sides alone has 100,000 adults in need of literacy training--a third of the Border's workforce and a fourth of total statewide need. Competency in basic reading and math is essential before a worker can benefit from, or in many cases enter, vocational training to improve job skills.
· Congress should amend the North American Free Trade Agreement-Trade Adjustment Assistance (NAFTA-TAA) act relaxing inflexible requirements linking benefits and training. Lacking this,
The U.S. Department of Labor has failed to recognize the unique situation in the Border and to adapt its programs accordingly. The NAFTA-TAA program does not meet the most critical needs of displaced workers in the Border because it does not allow them the time to assess their skills needs and find the most appropriate training to move them back into the workforce.
Over 75 percent of the displaced workers need long term training to bring their literacy skills to a level that then allows them to move into more specific skills training.
How to Apply for North American Free Trade Agreement-Trade Adjustment Assistance (NAFTA-TAA: The case of
MENT ISTANCE (TAA) PROGRAMS
E/C.19/2008/CRP. 1 5 February 2008 English
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Seventh session
FINAL REPORT OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ BORDER
1. We, the representatives, delegates and traditional authorities of Indigenous Peoples and organizations from 19 Indigenous Nations, from throughout Sacred Turtle Island, the land currently known as the Americas, have come together at the Indigenous Peoples Border Summit of the Americas II with the following stated objectives:
(a) To provide the opportunity for Indigenous Peoples’ of the border regions to exchange experiences and information about how the international borders impact their respective communities.
(b) Create a way to unite Indigenous Peoples’ to address and resolve issues of mutual concern affecting our traditional homelands, cultural and ceremonial practices, sacred sites, treaty rights, health, and way of life.
(c) Build awareness and educate all peoples about the impacts of policies and practices being carried out along the borders.
2. We extend our deep appreciation to the Indigenous Peoples of the Tohono O’odham Nation and the San Xavier Community, for their hospitality and generosity in hosting the various delegations attending this
3. We express our appreciation to the organizers of this event for this historic opportunity to bring together many of the Indigenous Peoples and Nations who are affected by these same situations, to share information, develop common strategies and express our solidarity for each other in this way.
4. We endorse and reaffirm the Declaration of San Xavier from the Border Summit of the
5. We express our appreciation for the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues 6th session, and the North America Regional Caucus Preparatory meeting for that session, which both recognized the importance of the First Border Summit in 2006, and encouraged the organization of this 2nd
6. We express our collective outrage for the extreme levels of suffering and inhumanity, including many deaths and massive disruption of way of life, that have been presented to this Summit as well as what we have witnessed in our visit to the border areas during the Summit as a result of brutal and racist US policies being enforced on the Tohono O’odham traditional homelands and elsewhere along the US/Mexico border.
7. We also recognize that many of our inherent, sacred and fundamental human rights, including our cultural rights and freedom of religion, self-determination and sovereignty, environmental integrity, land and water rights, bio-diversity of our homelands, equal protection under the law, Treaty Rights, Free Prior Informed Consent, Right to Mobility, Right to Food and Food Sovereignty, Right to Health, Right to Life, Rights of the Child and Right to Development among others, are being violated by current border and “immigration” policies of various settler governments.
8. We recognize and applaud the adoption of the UN Declaration on the Rights of
Indigenous Peoples which affirms and recognizes a full range of our human rights, including article 36 which affirms:
(i). Indigenous peoples, in particular those divided by international borders, have the right to maintain and develop contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with their own members as well as other peoples across borders. (ii). States, in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take effective measures to facilitate the exercise and ensure the implementation of this right.
9. We also strongly affirm the message expressed by many of the Indigenous delegates at this gathering: to be sovereign, and to be recognized as sovereign we must act sovereign and assert our sovereignty in this and all other matters.
10. We therefore present this report with the intention of proposing, developing and strengthening real and effective solutions to this critical issue:
We call upon the United Nations and the International community:
11. To end international policies which support economic globalization, “free-trade agreements”, destruction of traditional food systems and traditional land-based economies, and land and natural resource appropriation which result in the forced relocation, forced migration and forced removal of Indigenous Peoples in Mexico, Guatemala and other countries, and cause Indigenous Peoples to leave their homelands and seek economic support for their families in other countries.
12. To ensure that the UN human rights system pressures States to provide protection and take action to prevent the violence, abuse and imprisonment of Indigenous woman and children along the borders who often bear the worse effects of current policies; to also implement immediate and urgent measures and provide oversight to end the physical, physiological and sexual violence that is currently being perpetrated against them with impunity as a result of their migrant status, whether it is being carried out by employers, human traffickers, private contractors and/or government agents.
13. To implement International Laws and mechanism to prohibit the practice by the US and other States of the production, storage, export and use of banned and toxic pesticides and other chemicals on the lands of Indigenous Peoples.
14. To provide protection under its mechanism addressing Human Rights Defenders to review and monitor all laws and policies which criminalize humanitarian aid to immigrating persons and provide protection for those carrying out these humanitarian acts.
15. To call upon the United Nations Permanent Forum 7th Session to recognize and take into consideration this Report and its recommendations and to transmit them to the United Nations system to ensure their implementation.
16. To establish as a priority by the Human Rights Council, it’s committees, subsidiary bodies, Special Rapporteurs; the U.N. Committee on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination and other Treaty monitoring bodies; the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues; and all other appropriate UN bodies and mechanisms to monitor the compliance to international Human Rights obligation of the U.S., Mexico, Canada and all other States in the creation and implementation of Border and immigration policies in particular those affecting Indigenous Peoples.
17. To call upon the CERD to specifically examine
We call upon State/Country Governments and Federal Agencies:
18. To fully honor, implement, and uphold the Treaties, Agreements and Constructive Arrangements which were freely concluded with Indigenous Peoples and First Nations, in accordance with their original spirit and intent as understood by the respective Indigenous Peoples’;
19. To fully implement, honor and respect the rights to land, natural resources and Selfdetermination, which includes the right to freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development, for Indigenous Peoples in their traditional home lands.
20. To immediately initiate effective consultations with impacted indigenous peoples’ who are divided by borders for the development of respectful guidelines relating to border crossings by those indigenous peoples’ which ensure the recognition of each indigenous nation as culturally distinct and politically unique autonomous peoples and uphold their rights to move freely and maintain relationships within their homelands.
21. To respect and facilitate the use of Indigenous Nations/tribal passports, identifications, and immigration documents for travel across imposed borders, specifically tribes along settler borders between
22. To end to the militarization of the U.S./Mexico border along all Tribal and Indian Nation lands, and an end to military and law-enforcement activity and occupation in Indigenous Peoples’ lands everywhere, without their free, prior informed consent.
23. To end forced assimilation perpetuated by immigration policies which categorize of Indigenous Peoples as “white” or “Hispanic/Latino” while they are in the process immigrating, acquiring residency and/or naturalization in the
24. To end the production and export of pesticides which have been banned for use in the U.S.A and other countries, and to accept full legal accountability for the health and environmental impacts of such chemicals that have contaminated Indigenous peoples, their health, lands, waters, traditional subsistence food systems and sacred sites.
25. To end to the continual violation of the Native American Freedom of Religion Act and the destruction, desecration and denial of access for Indigenous Peoples to their sacred sites and cultural objects along the border areas, and to enforce all cultural, religious freedom and environmental protection laws and polices for federal agencies operating in these regions.
26. To provide protection for and end the intimidation of Indigenous and other peoples providing humanitarian aid along and within tribal lands to Indigenous and other displaced migrant peoples crossing the borders and to call for an immediate end to the criminalization of such expressions of basic human caring and assistance.
27. To end to the ongoing environmental contamination, eco-system destruction and waste dumping on Indigenous and tribal lands along the border by the military, border patrols and private contractors doing business with federal agencies.
28. To ensure that the US Border patrol and other federal agencies operating on or near Indigenous Peoples’ lands are held fully and legally accountable for restoration, reparations and/or remediation of any damages or harm they have caused to peoples, ecosystems and places, in full consultation with the affected persons and Peoples,
29. To reinstate the Sovereign rights of Indigenous Peoples whose rights and status have been terminated through colonialist rule of law and daily practices of forced assimilation in all countries.
30. To ensure respect for Indigenous Peoples’ land and resource rights in their own homelands in all countries as the most effective way to address immigration issues and Indigenous Peoples’ human rights concerns overall.
31. To implement humane immigration policies that fully respect the inherent human rights of all Peoples and persons and fully comply with States’ obligations under International Human Rights Law.
We call upon Indigenous Peoples’ and Nations:
32. To create and use Indian Nations/tribal passports, identifications, and immigration documents for travel across imposed borders, specifically tribes along settler borders along Mexico and the U.S. and the U.S. and Canada, and to fully reinstate their traditional border crossing rights and abilities.
33. To encourage and promote cultural and traditional knowledge exchange among Indigenous Peoples across borders in order to strengthen our ties and to restore our traditional life ways and practices.
34. To recognize each other fully as Sovereign Peoples and Nations.
35. To acknowledge the intersection of Indigenous sovereignty and respect for our sacred mother the earth as a basis for maintaining and reestablishing the necessary social, political, spiritual, cultural and economic strength of the women of our nations.
36. To examine, review and amend as needed, all tribal government policies regarding the treatment of migrants traveling through their Nations’ lands to insure they are consistent with both creator given traditional laws and International Human Rights standards, in particular those whose lands are in the border regions.
37. To refuse to accept the use, storage or transport of toxic contaminants or wastes on their lands, including those which have been transported across borders.
NGO’s and Supportive Groups:
38. To join with Indigenous Peoples to call upon the International Community, State governments and their agencies to implement this Report and its recommendations, and to continue to defend the human and sovereign rights of Indigenous Peoples throughout the
39. The participants in this Summit request that the International Indian Treaty Council (IITC), as well as other Indigenous Peoples’ organizations continue to submit and present the information provided during this summit including this Declaration to appropriate international bodies including the CERD, HRC and UNPFII Sessions in 2008, as well as to disseminate this information widely in order to create awareness support for this critical human rights issue.
40. We also request that the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues accept this Declaration at it’s 7th session in May 2008 and propose to all bodies and agencies of the United Nations System, as well as U.N. member States that they incorporate it into their respective plans of action and policies, including the plan of action for the 2nd International Decade of the Worlds Indigenous Peoples and the Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals.
Adopted by consensus of the Participants in the Indigenous Peoples Border
EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND LEGISLATION CHANGES TO BE DONE
State law should be amended so that school districts with low-performing schools employ aggressive measures to increase academic achievement.
Experience and research have shown that methods such as open enrollment--as has been the practice in some
· Both the written and oral usage and comprehension portions of the Examination for the Certification of Educators in
Nearly all of the current ExCET exam for bilingual teachers of Spanish involves demonstrating proficiency in instructional methods. Oral comprehension is measured by a separate test, the Arizona Oral Proficiency Test. None of the ExCET test currently focuses on proper Spanish grammar, reading or writing.
· A study should be conducted to identify best practices in bilingual education, and the findings should be disseminated to all Border school districts.
The federally funded Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, which has explored opportunities for joint U.S.-Mexico endeavors in public education, has expressed a willingness to survey best practices along the border.
Although the highest priority in the Border is to upgrade both worker skills and the number of skilled jobs available, solving the region's long run unemployment problems also involves fostering the growth in industries which have historical roots and strength in the region to absorb the growing labor force. Instead of "writing off" some of these jobs as casualties of international competition, the region needs to seek niche markets to preserve, and even expand, job opportunities.
The state of
The rules require that applicants for teacher certification pass a test of subject knowledge. Candidates for teacher certification must also pass a test of professional knowledge. The Arizona Educator Proficiency Assessments (AEPA) were designed to ensure that each certified teacher has the necessary knowledge to teach in
The AEPA address areas covered by the Arizona Academic Standards, the Arizona Professional Teaching Standards, and the Arizona Professional Administrative Standards. The tests are criterion referenced and objective based. A criterion-referenced test is designed to measure a candidate’s knowledge in relation to an established standard of performance (a criterion) rather than in relation to the performance of other candidates.
The explicit purpose of these tests is to help identify candidates for certification who have demonstrated the level of professional knowledge and skills judged to be important for
A set of objectives was developed for each test field to serve as the basis for test content. The test objectives reflect certification standards, curriculum materials, and content of educator preparation programs in
Each test is composed of questions that measure a candidate’s mastery of these test objectives. Each objective consists of two major parts: the objective statement, which broadly defines the subject matter that an entry-level educator needs to know, and the descriptive statement, which provides examples of the types of knowledge and skills covered by the test objective. The objectives for each field can be found on the AEPA Web site by selecting “Test Objectives.”
A content validation survey, involving randomly selected
Some Proposals to Enhance Arizona-Sonora Border Economic Development
· The U.S. Department of Agriculture should work with agricultural processing firms to develop a plan for increased agricultural product inspections along the border. The goal of this program is to ensure the safety of agricultural products from
· Mexican Fresh Produce Confederation of Agricultural Associations of Sinaloa (CAADES) is a key player in Nogales Customs procedures for Mexican Winter fresh produce to be imported to the
One of the results of the increasing internationalization of the Arizona-Mexico marketplace is a shift of some agricultural production southward, especially after the enacting of the employers sanction law that started to operate on January 1st 2008. Not Only
But, preserving this trade into the future is important. Food safety is an increasing concern to
· The Arizona Department of Economic Development should convene a summit with High Tech and similar industrial activities leaders in
Although it may not be possible to preserve all the jobs in the traditional industries along the border, some parts of the production may be best suited to higher valued-added processes such as Bio-Tech, Aerospace and other kind of high tech industries that have unique connections to the
For example, in the summer of 2005 Hastings Rod Manufacturing based in
· The Arizona Department of Economic Development should fund a feasibility study of Major League Baseball spring training and other viable sports in the south of
· The permanent home for artifacts from indigenous people in The Tohono Nation and Mexican indigenous people as well as Border historical sites as well as National Parks should be protected and enhance infrastructure and better facilities to support the development of tourism.
Tourism is an important job-generator in the Border region whose growth should be fostered. New possibilities which would add to the region's increasing set of attractions should be carefully investigated. Just to mention few of them, The Father Kino Missions in Northern Sonora, Sierra towns and hunting places, Sonora Desert spots as Pinacate National Park in Sonora, beach destinations and Colonial cities combined with the Southern Arizona places of attraction in the Tohono Nation and Natural Reserves, National and State Parks as Saguaro National Monument are part already of “Two Nation Vacation” a Program promoted by the Tucson Metropolitan Convention Visitors Bureau.
One show Case: The
"The Pinacate" is a precious jewel which presently is an ecological reserve. This majestic area comprises mountains and volcanoes, dunes and washes, and seasonal lands which survive just on scarcely any water. Furthermore, this area is rich in archaeological findings of the so-called San Dieguito culture that inhabited the region approximately 12 thousand years ago.
Contrary to what could be thought, there is a great wealth of wild animal and plant species at "El Pinacate", despite that rainfall is scarce and unpredictible. Different types of cacti and other plants dominate the landscape, in which animals live hidden under the sand dunes and the soil.
Therefore, once you have visited this spot, you will always want to come back and why not? ... spend several nights together with the inhabitants of a unique place in
Need to Promote Arizona-Sonora Borderlands
The region that spans the border of
The borderlands region lies firmly within the embrace of the
As surprising as it may sound, the
Though rain falls from the sky above the desert during two seasons of the year, average rainfall in the borderlands region ranges between 0 and 12 inches per year (0 to 40 cm/yr). The region receives the lowest amount of precipitation in
Natural Features, Parks, and Monuments
The Arizona-Sonora borderlands contains a large concentration of protected areas that are located on both sides of the US-Mexico border, several of which are featured here:
Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge was created in 1939 for the conservation of natural wildlife resources, including the endangered Sonoran pronghorn and lesser long-nosed bats, desert bighorns, lizards, rattlesnakes, and desert tortoises. The refuge encompasses over 860,000 acres of some of the most pristine tracts of
Cabeza Prieta, Spanish for "dark head," refers to a lava-topped, granite peak in a remote mountain range in the western corner of the refuge. This rugged landscape is home to as many as 391 plant species and more than 300 species of wildlife. Visitors to Cabeza Prieta can enjoy plentiful hiking, photography, wildlife observation, and primitive camping opportunities. Visitors, however, are asked to avoid lingering near water holes, as wildlife depend on them for survival
On the basis of the Ley General del Equilibrio Ecológico y la Protección al Ambiente, this area just south of the
La Sierra de El Rosario and the volcanic shield are the two core zones of the reserve. Together they cover almost 40% of the reserve’s 714,557 hectares, thereby helping to conserve a number of volcanic formations such as 10 maars, more than 400 cinder cones, lava flows, and the
The Jesuit priest Francisco Eusebio Kino was the first to recognize the volcanic origin of El Pinacate and was responsible for naming the Santa Clara Volcano. El Pinacate has a cultural history dating back approximately 20,000 years according to archaeological dating of artifacts. The San Dieguito complex and its rock-based artifacts found in the volcanic soil have bbeen documented as the earliest signs of human occupation in the area. Other cultures subsequently appeared in El Pinacate region such as the Amaragosa group, the Hia’ Ced O’odham (the Sand People or Pimas Altos), and the present day population of Tohono O’odham that reside on both sides of the international border.
The reserve also contains the largest field of active, stabilized sand dunes in
The Pinacate, which is 30 kilometers north of Puerto Penasco, is an ecological reserve comprised of 28,600 hectares of land. One of the most beautiful and isolated desert landscapes, the reserve features majestic mountains, hundreds of volcanic cinder cones and lava flows, sand dunes, and washes. The landscape of the area leaves the visitor feeling as though they may have landed on the surface of the moon. In fact, astronauts visited the Pinacate to familiarize themselves with a lunar-type landscape before heading for the moon.
Reserva de la Biosfera Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado
The reserve was established in June 1993 and includes an area of 934,756 hectares with a “core zone” mainly within the river delta and a surrounding “buffer zone”. The main objective is to achieve present and future conservation, sustainable use and integrity of the terrestrial and marine wildlife in their natural ecosystems as well as promote the social development of the local communities and users of the natural resources.
The core zone is where most of the protection activities taker place and the buffer zone where the productive activities are carried out/ The conservation of natural resources is important, because it will allow and orderly utilization of the natural resources that may have economic and biological importance for the region. As a Biosphere Reserve, this area will strengthen the sustainable economic activities of the region promoting the economic welfare of the local inhabitants through the rational use of the resources
The ecological diversity of the
Contemporary borderlands residents live mostly in the cities, towns, and villages of southwestern
Relieving Congestion in the Border Customs: better technologies for trade facilitation without putting on risk the security policies
In several areas of life along the border, physical facilities are strained to the limit and beyond. As demonstrated by the long lines of trucks sitting at border crossing points, this is true of many parts of the region's transportation system. There is a similar lack of capacity in the affordable housing market as well. To address these needs:
· The U.S and
Possibly requiring a treaty or other agreement with the Mexican government, such a step would alleviate multiple rush hours at border crossings, which contribute to costly delays and detours.
Staffing patterns for federal customs officials could also be improved. Hours, manpower, and the distribution of staff are all factors. From Douglas to
A 24-hour customs operation would alleviate the traffic gridlock between 3 and 9 p.m. A federal agreement between the
· The U.S and the Mexican governments should implement and promote technology improvements at U.S.-Mexico border crossings to ease U.S. Customs inspections and reduce traffic congestion.
Automated Export System Post-departure Authorized Special Status equipment is available. U.S. Customs officials could promote this new technology to importers/exporters and trucking companies. Benefits include one-stop export filing, the savings inherent in a paperless system, and the improved accuracy of trade statistics. However, more commitment is needed in the Mexican side, not only of Mexican Customs authorities but also Mexican private companies that can obtain the US Registration of Certified Export Companies of Low Risk (CTPAT), many of these companies are based in
· A need to provide for one-stop border inspection stations on the Arizona-Mexico border, improving state and federal tax collections and traffic flow, while enhancing safety inspections.
Planning of the inspection facilities should meet state and local government needs. Where possible, land should be purchased for a facility that accommodates all relevant agencies, especially since more than 65 percent of all Mexican truck traffic entering the
The availability of ample land at a reasonable cost near the border crossing may be an
· State law should be amended to require the Arizona Department of Transportation (AxDOT) to encourage private investment in transportation infrastructure in the Arizona-Mexico Border region and Mexican Federal Authorities should help
It must be explore the posibility to build a privately funded toll road around Nogales to Interstate 19, that will demonstrates the possibilities of private sector investment in Border infrastructure, future opportunities merit state encouragement.
AxDOT should spur private investment in transportation infrastructure along the border by identifying the best possible projects for public-private partnerships. Projects with a high probability of providing enough return of revenue to pay for themselves should be targeted. AxDOT should, within the planning process, place a priority on Border projects with some private funding. These private entities could staff facilities in accordance with state and federal specifications for training and knowledge in license and weight inspection and safety.
State law should be amended to direct the Arizona Department of Housing/Arizona Housing Finance Authority to implement a program promoting for-profit construction of homes that are affordable to Border workers.
ADH/AHFA and the Affordable Housing Corporation should be instructed to develop and operate a builder incentive partnership with
The builder incentive partnership would feature a guaranteed purchase ("assured take-out") agreement with a "cost-plus" profit structure. ADH/AHFA should guarantee a percentage of the purchase price for a certain number of homes at specific prices in the $30,000 to $50,000 range. The cost-plus structure would provide the profit incentive builders need to work in the lowest end of the market, while the guaranteed purchase arrangement would minimize the builder's risk.
The homes purchased through the builder incentive partnership should conform to a set of quality and design criteria developed by ADH/AHFA. The houses should be laid out to accommodate room and amenity additions easily if families want to add on in future years. In short, the houses should be classic "starter" homes, built to appreciate in value but flexible enough to be the only home a family ever needs to own.
Builders would continue to market their product to buyers as they do currently. Qualifying buyers would meet typical "first-time home buyer" criteria, with income eligibility tightened and locally structured to ensure that the homes go to low-wage workers.
ADH/AHFA could assume title to any homes that did not yet have qualified buyers within 30 days of completion, and sell them to individuals, non-profits, or local housing agencies. Alternatively, the state could simply put up the guarantee fund and have cooperative agreements with local agencies and non-profits to buy the unsold units. In any case, the builder's warranty should convey to the first owner-occupant.
ADH/AHFA should continue to make down-payment assistance available to individuals purchasing homes through the builder incentive partnership and ADH/AHFA should work together to identify sources of funds that would be appropriate for the partnership. The agencies should consider issuing taxable bonds and using market-rate financing. Because the new homes would be truly affordable, buyers would not need low-interest loans.
Most buyers in the program should try to go through traditional lenders. ASAHC, in its role as lender of last resort, should develop an alternative financing program for buyers who, while they have stable income, can't obtain conventional loans because of lack of credit history or other problems that many low-wage workers face.
· State law should be amended to direct the Arizona Department of Housing (ADH/AHFA) to establish an owner-builder interim construction loan program in partnership with construction supply companies.
The state should work with one or more construction supply companies to administer an interim construction loan for owner-builders. ADH/AHFA should guarantee a percentage of the value of loans made through the program.
Along with administering the loan, the supplier would agree to provide technical assistance to the owner-builder and to facilitate the inspection process or to perform inspections for projects outside city limits. ADH/AHFA should develop the program in consultation with local building inspectors so that the program can include an incremental inspection process. The interim construction loan should be available to those individuals and families who need to expand or rehabilitate homes, as well as those who are starting from scratch.
ADH should work with non-profit groups that have already begun testing rehabilitation loans and "self-help" owner-construction approaches. Local groups and housing agencies could also put up loan guarantee pools using their own funds if they chose.
As part of the owner-builder loan program, ADH should refinance or facilitate refinancing of lots purchased through contract for deed where the buyer wants to apply for an owner-builder loan.
Guaranteeing owner-builder loans would improve the quality of owner-built homes, decrease the cost of financing, and ensure that the end result is a valuable piece of real estate in which the builder has money equity, not just "sweat equity."
· State law should be amended to direct the Arizona Department of Housing and Finance Authority (ADH/AHFA) to find ways of improving the profitability of serving low-income home buyers in the state's bond programs.
Serving low-income buyers would be more profitable for lenders and real estate agents if the profit margin on low-value sales was higher than usual, or if the amount of time necessary to serve a low-income family was reduced. The former goal could be accomplished by targeting payments to those involved in the real estate transaction while some of the administrative burden of serving low-income households could be addressed by non-profit organizations and home-buyer assistance programs. ADH/AHFA should evaluate both approaches and report to the Bond Review Board and the Legislature on the effectiveness of incentives in improving service for low-income clients.
· State law should be amended directing the Arizona General Land Office and the Arizona Department of Housing to identify state-owned property, including lots and structures, that could be used effectively for affordable housing.
The two agencies should estimate the total value of state property that could be used effectively for affordable housing, the total value of housing that could be built on the identified state property, alternative uses of the property, and property tax implications of using state property for affordable housing.
National Problems on
Federal and state agencies must accept some responsibility for the problems facing the Arizona Border region. Certainly the trade adjustment issues of NAFTA, such as the loss of jobs in import-competing industries and any subsequent retraining needs, stem from national policies designed to aid
· The federal government should establish a Border Regional Commission for Arizona-Sonora borderlands. This Commission would have a national voice in
As a good example, in establishing the Appalachian Regional Commission in 1965, the federal government recognized the need for intervention in one poverty-plagued part of the nation. In some ways, this type of intervention and other examples of federal recognition of regional economic problems resemble a domestic "Marshall Plan." Indeed, goals later established to help the Appalachian region improve its living standard could be adopted wholesale by the Border counties not only of
This Commission should be established with the goal of helping the Border region raise itself out of poverty. Like the Appalachian Regional Commission, each state should be responsible for developing its own plan and Commission actions should only be the result of unanimous consent by the governors of the four states.
As suggested by the U.S.-Mexico Chamber of Commerce in
· The state should encourage U.S. Department of Justice officials to find adequate, stable funding sources to reimburse Arizona Border counties for costs incurred to house and prosecute federal drug suspects and other county border expenses related to influx of new comers and temporary residents that demand public services as health .
Some years ago, the
Furthermore, increased enforcement in the Border region as a result of additional customs and Border Patrol officers has increased apprehensions of drug smugglers and undocumented workers. Since the Southern District of Arizona does not have a federal detention center, the number of federal detainees in county jails will increase. The number of drug case prosecutions may also rise.
Federal Government Owes
Janet Napolitano has asked the federal government to pay
The average daily cost of holding an inmate in an
“This is just wrong,” said Governor Napolitano. “
Governor Napolitano sent two invoices to the Federal government. The first is for $40,602,376.00 – the amount due to the state for holding SCAAP inmates between July 1 and December 31, 2004. The second bills $77.3 million for inmates held between July 1, 2003 and June 30, 2004.
In this 2004 letter, Governor Napolitano writes, “If you cannot, or will not, pay these costs, then I hereby make formal demand that the federal government take custody of the undocumented criminal aliens in our state prisons and incarcerate them. Please note that, among other things, we will continue to submit invoices to your office until this matter is satisfactorily resolved.”
Federal authorities regulate commerce, trade, and narcotics interdiction along the border with local collaboration and cooperation. A stable federal funding source for continuing local and federal prosecutorial collaboration would ensure that cooperation not only continues, but expands.
· State law should be amended to change drug sentencing laws so they make trafficking drugs in large quantities a crime for which the for life imprisonment penalty is a possible sentence.
Drug smugglers continue to see the border as a wide-open door through which to ship drugs into the
A 1994 crime bill in
· State law should be amended to increase manpower and funding to the Arizona Department of Public Safety (ADPS) Narcotics Service and allow the service to replace vehicles sooner.
DPS reports that drug traffickers have become more brazen and are storing their smuggled goods in residential neighborhoods. Keeping up with the drug traffickers' activities requires around-the-clock vigilance and investigation. Enforcement of narcotics laws is dangerous work--armed encounters are frequent--and requires that officers have safe and dependable equipment. Some of the automobiles used by the officers have excessive mileage on them and are often in the shop.
While many instances of cooperation between the
To remedy these problems:
· State law should be amended to enhance the Office of Arizona-Mexico Relations in the Arizona Governor's Office.
An Office of Arizona-Mexico Relations (OA-MR), (reinforcing the role of the Arizona-Mexico Commission) in the Governor's Office would establish more formal and sustained lines of communication between the governments of Arizona and the state of Sonora, Mexico, The OA-MR should develop economic and cultural relations between Arizona and Mexico by working with public and private sector organizations to initiate, coordinate, and implement projects that improve the quality of life on the border.
An important function of the OA-MR should be to develop innovative ways for funding development in the Border region, such as attracting
· The Arizona Legislature should initiate sessions with the state legislature of
One goal of these sessions would be to establish a multilevel governmental framework through which both states could initiate, coordinate, and complete projects to develop the Border region and improve the quality of life for residents in both countries.
· Form operational local workforce development boards and promote cooperation among boards representing different parts of the Border Region.
The Arizona Workforce Commission's (AWC) difficulties in implementing the massive reforms that created the agency and the local boards, and the reluctance of local officials to shift their focus to regional concerns are two fundamental factors that keep some boards from forming and from becoming quickly operational. The key reason to form a local board is to get input from business. Unless there are strategic local conversations with businesses who can provide the jobs to workers, then job training programs will have difficulty succeeding--a prime purpose behind reforms enacted in 1995. While formation of a local workforce development board is not required, if a region fails to do so, it forfeits local control of the programs administered by AWC.
Because the Border counties are divided into workforce regions, efforts to develop a coordinated strategy for combating unemployment and improving economic development may be stymied. Leaders of each of the boards should form a special group to draw up solutions for the entire region. By coming together to address the unique needs of Border workers, local workforce board leaders can create an even more powerful force in
· State law should be amended to require the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) to negotiate streamlined safety and operating standards between
U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) goals foster a "compliance mind set" among the NAFTA countries to achieve continuous improvement in adhering to
Working with the Department of Public Safety (DPS), AxDOT officials should conduct a continuing education campaign on
The Pilot Truck Program to allow a good sample of Mexican trucks into
If more federal funds are provided for training and DPS officers aid in continued training classes for Mexican Federal Highway officers, the streamlining effect of compliance with U.S. safety regulations will increase because the compliance mind set will start in Mexico and continue into Arizona. This training should continue to be provided by DPS officers until Mexican highway patrol officers can conduct the inspection program in
· Remove barriers to binational exchanges of information on disease and epidemiological reporting through the exchange of laboratory/diagnostic and computer equipment.
The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Association and the Border Governors' Conference should ask the federal governments of the
Binational Water Quality Monitoring Activities Along the Arizona-Sonora Border Region, by Mario Castaneda, Water Border Technical Coordinator, Water Quality Division, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality.
Water pollution is one of the principal environmental and public health problems facing the U.S./Mexico Border area. Deficiencies in the treatment of wastewater, the disposal of untreated effluent, and the inadequate operation and maintenance of treatment plants result in health risks to border communities. In some cases raw or insufficiently treated wastewater flows to surface and groundwater sources in urban and rural areas. In addition, potential contamination to groundwater from point sources exists in the area due to the increased industrial activity on both sides of the border. Groundwater is the major drinking water source for most border communities. Binational efforts are being undertaken under the U.S./Mexico Border 21 program to address these concerns. This binational program has also identified surface water and groundwater quality monitoring as an objective to characterize and determine the status of and changes in water resources in the border area.
Also, it has identified the need to collect and analyze water quality data using standard sampling methodologies on both sides of the border. This paper describes the efforts that the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality has undertaken in participating on binational water quality projects in the Arizona-Sonora border. Two different approaches for binational cooperation on water quality monitoring will be presented. Water quality data collected and analyzed by both countries using commonly agreed sampling methodologies and data quality objectives will be presented and discussed.
The growth of population and industry in
Labor and assembly costs are much lower in
Groundwater is the major drinking water source for most of the border communities in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The lack of basic inventory and monitoring information pertaining to water resources prevent a comprehensive understanding of watershed and regional natural resources issues. Lack of quantitative information concerning the natural recharge and the possible limitations of many of the groundwater supplies lead to uncertainties as to the future of these water resources. Binational efforts are being undertaken under the U.S./Mexico Border 21 Program to address these concerns. The U.S./Mexico Border 21 Program is a binational effort to work cooperatively toward sustainable development through protection of human health and the environment as well as proper management of natural resources in each country.
The 1996 Border 21 Framework Document defined five-year objectives for the border environment and described the mechanisms for fulfilling those objectives (EPA, 1996). One of the key objectives was identifying surface water and groundwater quality monitoring to characterize and determine the status of and changes in water resources in the border area. Another objective was the development of environmental indicators to use in evaluating the effectiveness of border environmental policy. However, the monitoring activity and the use of environmental indicators for the border area require sharing environmental data by the
The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) has been actively participating on the EPA Border 21 activities (Castaneda, 1995). Several binational surface water and groundwater monitoring projects have been already implemented along the Arizona-Sonora border. ADEQ has recognized the importance of developing a consistent environmental policy in dealing with water quality issues along the border and in participating on binational water quality projects since both surface water and groundwater flow to both sides in these binational watersheds. However, this participation has been complex and difficult because of the different legal environmental jurisdiction in both countries.
Binational water quality (and quantity) issues between both countries are dealt by the International Boundary and Water Commissions (IBWC). Direct contact between the
It has been recognized in the
In an effort to standardize water quality sampling methodologies along the Arizona-Sonora border region, the Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) of the
This paper describes the efforts that ADEQ has undertaken in participating on binational water quality monitoring projects in the Arizona-Sonora border. Two different approaches for binational cooperation on water quality monitoring will be described: the formal approach that was coordinated by the
The ADEQ Formal Binational Interaction
The formal ADEQ binational interaction can be exemplified by its participation on the Binational Nogales Wash Groundwater Monitoring project. This is the first groundwater quality monitoring project that has been implemented along the U.S.-Mexico border.
The wash joins the
The regional groundwater flow is generally to the
As a result, official binational meetings were initiated in 1992 to address the growing concerns about the groundwater quality in this area. Based on a binational agreement between the
Data collection would document whether or not surface activities and discharges to the
Representatives of the participating agencies from the
A well construction plan, developed in May 1993 by ADEQ and IBWC, was approved by the EPA in January 1994. This work plan was negotiated with
A revised version containing the proposed
Negotiations to approve both documents took considerable amount of efforts and time. A training session on the project sampling procedures was provided to all project participants prior to the sampling activities. A binational project interim report containing sampling data from the first two quarterly sampling activities was finalized in June 1998. A final report is being developed by the participating agencies and is expected to be completed by December of 1998.
Split samples were collected by both groups and tested for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), major cations and anions (MCAS), trace metals (26 constituents), total and fecal coliforms, and field parameters. The laboratories responsible for the analyses conducted in this project were certified by the respective country’s laboratory certification process. Table 1 presents a list of some of the parameters analyzed and their respective practical quantitation limits reported from both labs.
Project quality control checks were performed using duplicate samples, field blanks, and trip blanks collected by each group. Precision was determined through duplicate analyses and calculated as a relative percent difference. Precision for field duplicate sample analysis were set to 30% or lower for VOCs and to 35% or lower for metals. Accuracy was determined by the analyses of surrogate and matrix spiked samples and calculated as percent recovery.
Recovery was generally expected to be within 70-130%. The limits for precision and accuracy were applied to any measurement that was at least ten times greater than the background (noise) level of the detector or the detection limit of the method. Cation/anion balances were calculated for each sample sent to the
Figures 1, 2, and 3 present a comparison of the
Figure 4 presents a mean of the respective relative percent difference (RPD) for the constituents analyzed by both labs (considered as duplicate samples). It also presents the mean of the individual RPDs calculated from the duplicate samples collected by each group (two duplicates by each group for April 1997). Both sampling teams met the individual precision criteria established for this project. The use of performance standard samples could have been an useful reference for the discrepant data.
Preliminary data from this project has shown the presence of groundwater contaminated with PCE exceeding both
The ADEQ Direct Binational Approach
A less formal but more direct approach to ADEQ binational activities can be exemplified by the water quality monitoring activities being performed in the eastern part of the Arizona-Sonora border, in the Douglas-Agua Prieta and Ambos Nacos area. These communities are presented with a variety of water quality issues. Groundwater flows generally to
With assistance and guidance from non-governmental organizations and the University of Sonora, the Sonoran border municipalities of Cananea, Naco, and Agua Prieta implemented a water quality monitoring project to assess the water quality of the three municipal areas, the San Pedro River (which flows to the U.S.), and the Sonora River (not a binational river) to allow for a more thorough depiction of water quality in the northern Sonora, Mexico.
This effort, named the "Sonoran Regional Water Quality Sampling Project," was to provide a baseline of environmental information regarding surface water and groundwater quality in the transboundary watersheds of the region. The
The Sonoran municipalities requested ADEQ support in carrying out this project. ADEQ was prepared to fulfill a supporting role for this Mexican project to enhance binational communication, transboundary relationships, technology transfer, and to develop an enhanced understanding of the environmental conditions in watersheds shared by
The ADEQ provided laboratory in-kind services for this project for analytical capabilities which had yet to be developed at the
Phase I of this project was implemented in 1997. Surface water, groundwater, and sediments were sampled for VOCs, major cations and anions, and pesticides. Inorganics analysis were performed by DICTUS. VOCs and pesticides analysis were performed by the
Precision and accuracy objectives were set similarly as those for the
Phase II of this project will expand the monitoring activities on the areas of concern that might be detected during the Phase I. The ADEQ-DICTUS MOU has been amended to include inorganic lab analysis support from the
These projects have provided an opportunity for ADEQ to collaborate in the understanding of the water quality conditions at these binational watersheds. It also has provided the opportunity to exchange and compare sampling methodologies with different Mexican federal and state regulatory agencies. There were no major differences on the water quality sampling methodologies used by both groups. However, major differences in laboratory analytical techniques need to be discussed and understood. There is a need to use performance standard samples in these binational monitoring projects. This understanding will be helpful when exchanging water quality data between both countries during the development of the border water quality environmental indicators taking place within the U.S.-Mexico Border 21 process.
Castañeda, Mario (1995): "U.S./Mexican Binational Ground Water Monitoring Activities In The Ambos
Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality. February 1995. The Strategy for Improving Water-Quality Monitoring in the
The Earth Technology Corporation, 1990. Water Quality Assurance Revolving Fund, Phase I Report,
The Earth Technology Corporation, 1993.
The International Boundary and Water Commission, May 1998. Binational
Water Desalination Project for Puerto Penasco to be perform by Bouchard Cos. of
A Valley construction management and environmental consulting firm has been awarded a $370,000 feasibility study and preliminary design contract for a water desalination plant in
The deal could set the standard for similar projects -- plants that create pure drinking water from seawater -- around the world. When built out, it will be the largest desalination facility in Latin America, according to Walt Bouchard, president of Bouchard Cos. of
"Plants of this nature are being considered wherever there are desert coastal regions all over the world," he said.
Bouchard said his firm was selected from among 58 that expressed interest in the project, which is being administered by the
Funding for the study comes from the U.S. Trade and Development Agency, an independent economic development organization financed by Congress. Only firms based in the
"The USTDA has a mission to fund projects all over the world ... where
But then the critical question will be: Who will pay for the facility?
Bouchard said the need for fresh water is so critical in Puerto Peñasco that developers will line up to help finance the plant. Grants from various international agencies also may be available.
He said it could cost millions of dollars to build the plant, but he would not speculate on specifics.
"It will be easier to fund than it appears at first, because it will be a modular design," Bouchard said.
The cutting-edge technology as well as the publicity generated should entice commercial interest.
Bouchard expects international firms to leap at the opportunity to participate in the project's financing and development.
"I think everyone from GE to Black & Veatch would want to build this thing, but we don't know who is qualified yet," he said.
Although the plant will serve the needs of the population of Puerto Peñasco, the lessons learned ultimately could translate into opportunities for
Dave Roberts, co-chairman of the water committee for the Arizona-Mexico Commission, said future needs for water in
He said talk about desalination methods and processes is becoming more common among water industry professionals, even though the process is expensive and presents a host of environmental concerns. Even so, the growing need for fresh water may tip the balance in favor of desalination.
Who: Bouchard Cos. of
What: Desalination water facility feasibility study
Where: Puerto Peñasco, Sonora, Mexico
Capacity: Initially, 11.4 million gallons of water purified daily; by 2020, 45.6 million gallons daily
Completion: Phase one within three to four years
ARIZONA WATER INSTITUTE www.azwaterinstitute.org
The Arizona Water Institute has done an outstanding research on water quality and water needs in
. However, more efforts have to be done on Border Water Resources, quality and needs in the Arizona-Sonora Border region including the Indigenous people of the Tohono Nation. Arizona
The Arizona Water Institute (AWI) combines the expertise of
Building a community - AWI is about people - people building collaborative, multidisciplinary solutions to water management challenges. One of AWI's most significant contributions is facilitating collaborations involving citizens, water managers, agencies, and policy makers and
Future of AWI - AWI is currently supported by the Arizona Board of Regents and the state general fund through an appropriation to the three universities. The universities also provide financial and operational support through other funding sources. AWI plans to be largely self-sustaining through federal grants, foundation support, project-related income, and private donations.
The Executive Committee provides direction and oversight of AWI activities. It is comprised of:
· the Vice-Presidents for Research at the three universities,
· the Chief of Staff of the governor's office,
· the chair of a 38-member external advisory board, made up of diverse water interests. and
· the Director of the Department of Water Resources (a rotating position among the three state agencies)
The Executive Director reports to the committee. Faculty coordinators on each campus help match resources within the three institutions to AWI projects and ensure the timely completion of projects. Associate Directors located in ADWR, ADEQ, and ADoC ensure that AWI provides the agencies with timely and appropriate support by working on projects and providing technical assistance.
· Serves as the hub of research, community assistance and analytical support to ensure clean and sustainable water resources;
· Provides education, training, and professional capacity building to citizens and state, local, and tribal government decision makers about conserving and managing water in arid/semi-arid environments; and
· Serves as a driver of economic opportunity by developing water products and services.
AWI initiative focus on broad areas of interest critical to governments, industries, and communities:
· Web-based access to water information through the Arizona Hydrologic Information System (AHIS);
· Capacity building/watershed research and support;
· Climate change/drought/adaptation;
· Emerging contaminants and treatment technologies;
· Energy/water stability.
· Salinity management and technologies
AWI provides services to stakeholders, industry, agencies, and communities:
· Water-related data access and retrieval;
· Projects focused on real world solutions;
· Presentations for groups and events;
· Planning support and meeting facilitation for water-related applications;
· Workshops and research proposal development, and
· Technology development and commercialization.
Collaborative teams of university researchers and stakeholders in government, industry, tribes, water companies, watershed alliances, agriculture, and other organizations work to solve the critical water issues facing
In its first year, AWI funded 18 collaborative projects. A key focus is the Arizona Hydrologic Information System (AHIS). Working with partners such as ADWR, ADEQ, and the Salt River Project, AWI is developing the tools to store, access, retrieve, and analyze water information to support water-related decisions, research, planning, education, and outreach. Projects in four other focus areas include:
· Testing of electro coagulation technology in semiconductor manufacturing;
· Analysis of emerging contaminants in water;
· Removal of estrogenic compounds at wastewater treatment plants;
· Development of a sensor for disinfection byproducts in drinking water;
· Development of a drought indicator and trigger for community water systems;
· Increasing water recovery during reverse osmosis treatment of CAP water;
· Evaluation of irrigation controller technologies.
· Assessment of the Navajo Nation's hydroclimate network;
· Development of plans with InterTribal Council of Arizona for tribal water management in
Watershed Assistance and Facilitation
· Scenario development and visualization for East Valley Water Forum drought planning;
· Review of ADWR Management Plan effectiveness;
· Assessment of environmental flow requirements of the
· Development of integrated riparian area monitoring;
· Identification/characterization of heritage waters
Water Infrastructure Finance Authority of
WIFA is an independent agency of the state of
Generally, WIFA offers borrowers below market interest on loans for one hundred percent of eligible project costs.
As a "bond bank," WIFA is able to issue water quality bonds on behalf of communities for basic water infrastructure. Through active portfolio and financial management, WIFA provides significant savings due to lower interest rates and shared/reduced closing costs. WIFA is able to lower a borrower's interest costs to between 70 and one hundred percent of WIFA's tax-exempt cost of borrowing.
WIFA's principal tools for providing low interest financial assistance include the Clean Water Revolving Fund for publicly held wastewater treatment projects and the Drinking Water Revolving Fund for both publicly and privately held drinking water systems. Both funds are capitalized by contributions from the state and the U.S. Congress.
WIFA also manages a Technical Assistance (TA) program. The TA program offers pre-design and design grants to all eligible wastewater and drinking water systems. Both pre-design and design loans are available. The purpose of the TA program is to enhance project readiness to proceed with a WIFA project construction loan.
Our vision at WIFA is to guide our resources to communities with the greatest need to maintain and enhance
WIFA's mission is to maintain and improve water quality in
About the WRRC
WRRC MISSION: The University of Arizona's Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) promotes understanding of critical state and regional water management and policy issues through research, community outreach and public education.
The WRRC is committed to:
· assisting communities in water management and policy;
· educating teachers, students and the public about water; and
· encouraging scientific research on state water issues.
A research and extension unit of the
The WRRC conducts water policy research and analysis, and its information transfer activities include publications, conferences, lectures, and seminars. Water news and information are provided to the academic community, water professionals, elected and appointed officials, students and the public. The WRRC is one of four
· State law should be amended to require the Arizona Water Development Board (AWDB) to hold quarterly summits to report the status of each Economically Distressed Areas Program (EDAP) project pending before the board and the reason for any delays.
The summits should bring together local officials, taxpayers, and colonia residents.
For various reasons, some water projects slated for underserved colonias have been pending before the AWDB since 1992 or longer. But colonia residents--the Arizonans most affected by such delays--have had no regular opportunities to monitor applications or hear explanations for slow progress. The AWDB should conduct the quarterly meetings in an informal setting to inform participants about the status of their particular colonia EDAP application and the reasons for delays. Local residents informed about government delays will be better able to influence decision-makers to move forward with the application process.
· To help raise the standard of living for Border residents, the 2008 Legislature should develop a collaborative economic development strategy for the Border region, with special emphasis on solving regional planning, resource allocation, and accountability problems.
· The Arizona Department of Economic Development (ADED) together with Sonora Government similar Department (Secretaria de Economia) should form task forces comprising government, business, and community leaders from the Border region to collaborate in developing local plans to create an environment and infrastructure to sustain higher standards of living.
A clear and often repeated need expressed by community leaders in interviews with the Comptroller's staff is to develop a shared vision for the Border region into the next century.
ADED and the task forces should hold summit meetings to identify problem areas and changes necessary in workforce preparation, in public and higher education, and in planning, coordinating, and implementing infrastructure projects to better foster economic development in the region.
These task forces should include representatives of business, government, and the greater Border community, including representatives from
The issues the summits should identify include:
· How the region could capitalize on the bilingual skills of its residents;
· How the region could develop trade-facilitating jobs in the transportation and distribution industries to take advantage of binational trade increases;
· How the region could promote the further development of maquila operations in northern
The following organization may be interested in supporting these goals:
SOUTHERN ARIZONA REGIONAL CITIZEN CORPS COUNCIL
FORMED BY THE COUNTIES OF COCHISE,
SSouthern Arizona Regional Citizen Corps Council
Street Address Cont.
Council Web Site
The Southern Arizona Regional Citizen Corps Council encompassing the four counties of the Southern Arizona Homeland Security Region; Cochise, Pima,
That the border is at an economic disadvantage with respect to most parts of
· The 2009 Legislature should make more widespread use of measures of need and the inability to raise local revenues in designing state funding formulas, particularly those requiring local governments match state and federal dollars.
In not requiring economically disadvantaged counties to provide a local share of highway funding to receive state and federal highway funding, the 2008 Legislature made the important statement that the distribution of needs doesn't necessarily match the distribution of tax resources. The Legislature should extend this principle to other instances in which local matching funds are required to receive state or federal assistance.
Important in these funding considerations are the joint effects of the Border region having both high service needs and diminished local revenue capacity. For example, anecdotal evidence indicates that Border students in community colleges may require more developmental courses than students coming from other parts of the state. But, if this increased burden were shifted to the local community college, this would mean imposing above-average costs on a system that has below average capacity to raise funds from their local property tax base.
· The Arizona Department of Housing (ADH) should allocate
ADH divides the state into 10 planning regions called Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) regions. Each of these regions should create a Tax Credit Review Board responsible for administering the Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC) application process and making tax credit awards. Each region's recommendations would be sent to ADH board members for final approval.
The Tax Credit Review Board would be made up of city and county housing authority representatives. Developers would apply to the regional board. Each board would establish criteria for choosing tax credit projects. This would allow each
If a regional Tax Credit Review Board failed to award all its federal tax credits within six months of the last program cycle, the region would return those tax credits to the ADH and they would be redistributed to regions that can use them.
ADH should continue to monitor the property granted a tax credit for compliance with Internal Revenue Service rules.
· Smart Jobs grants should be better targeted to companies in regions of the state with the highest unemployment rates and the lowest per-capita income.
The Arizona Department of Economic Development should create a formula for ranking Smart Jobs grant applications that includes a special weight for the per-capita income of the region in relation to the statewide average. Applications that would create jobs in regions with lower per-capita incomes should be given priority.
Quality of Life
Finally, several actions can be taken which will increase the overall quality of life for Border residents by improving the environment and providing needed--and unique-- medical services
· The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should provide funding and technical assistance, through its Border XXI initiative, to expand "sister city" agreements to include other areas of environmental concern as deemed appropriate by local residents.
"Sister city" agreements regarding cooperative response to hazardous waste emergencies are already in place or being negotiated in cities along the U.S.-Mexico border. These agreements provide an excellent model for cross-border cooperation and "bottom-up" decision-making in setting environmental priorities. EPA currently provides funding and advice to support local decision-making during the negotiations for such agreements, but should expand its scope to include air and water quality and hazardous and solid waste disposal issues.
Another important legislation of the Federal Government through the Department of Agriculture and promoted by the ANRCS is The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 that is landmark legislation for conservation funding and for focusing on environmental issues. The conservation provisions help farmers and ranchers meet environmental challenges on their land. This legislation simplifies existing programs and creates new programs to address high priority environmental and production goals. The 2002 Farm Bill enhances the long-term quality of our environment and conservation of our natural resources.
· State law should be amended to authorize the Arizona Natural Resource Conservation Service (ANRCS) to develop a policy for the use of international Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs).
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ANRCS have each wielded SEPs as enforcement tools, allowing pollution violators to pay reduced fines by investing in environmental projects that benefit the affected community. Last year, EPA allowed a
With a change in state law, ANRCS would have clear authority to develop international solutions by implementing SEPs on both sides of the border. A law authorizing such arrangements would erase any confusion and allow the agency to proceed with innovative approaches.
· Urge the Arizona Higher Education Coordinating Board (AHECB) to focus research and technology funds on Border environmental issues and to be aware of assessments and evaluations already done regarding the environmental impact of the Border Wall.
AHECB should designate Border environmental needs, including water quality and water availability, as high-priority projects to be funded from the Advanced Research and Advanced Technology programs.
Population growth, the increasing scarcity of water, and problems with water quality, including increased salinity and fecal coliform in the border urban and rural areas, require new, affordable solutions.
· State law should be amended to offer an optional, uniform “promotora” training and licensing program.
The training program, to be used within health science centers, community colleges, and adult/continuing education programs, should include a curriculum building on the Border Vision project through the Arizona Alliance for Safety and Health.
A description of this alliance follows:
General Purpose of Alliance To promote awareness and knowledge of safety and health through the joint efforts of the participants with the primary emphasis on the delivery of safety and health training and education for the benefit of employers and employees in the State of Arizona.
§ Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
§ OSHA Region 9
§ Lovitt-Touche Inc.
§ Associated General Contractors -
§ American Society of Safety Engineers -
§ Southwest Safety Training
§ ETC Compliance Solutions
§ National Safety Congress -
§ Associated Safety Engineers of
§ Southwest Safety Congress
§ Klondyke Inc.
§ Workplace Safety Specialists
§ Delta Diversified Electrical
§ Schuff International
It is envisioned that businesses and workers in
Participants in the
Ideas and consensus recommendations will be promulgated as a workplan which will support the needs of the majority of the participants.
Participation in the
1. Identification of Worker Training Needs
2. Identification of Training Needed by the Safety & Health Community
Participants will identify the types of training or seminars which would support the professional needs of the safety and health community. The training would also assist employers in meeting the necessary training requirements of the State and Federal regulations. This training could include formal OSHA certificated classes presented by the
3. Identify Methods to Develop a New Cadre of Safety & Health Professional is
Focus would be on the educational support system in
Other methods of developing such a cadre could include intern programs and job shadowing.
4. Identification of Means to Obtain and Maintain Professional Certification by Safety & Health Professionals in
Focus would be on obtaining and maintaining the status of Certified Safety Professional, Certificated Industrial Hygienist, Occupational Health and Safety Technologist, and Construction Health and Safety Technicians. Methods would include identification of courses needed for certification and preparation for examinations. The
5. Identification of Methods to Support the Annual Southwest Safety Congress & Exposition
Focus would be on the types of courses and seminars which would make
6. Identification of Methods of Marketing the Above Objectives
Annual Review of Alliance Once a year, participants will have the opportunity to evaluate the progress of the
The curriculum should be developed in conjunction with the Arizona Higher Education Coordinating Board and Arizona Department of Health (ADH). AHECB estimates $500,000 would be needed to develop a curriculum and initiate a licensing or certification body for the first two years.
Furthermore, a licensing or certification body should be created, possibly housed within ADH, to oversee state “promotora” efforts. Licensing or certification fees could be charged on a sliding scale, depending on whether the “promotora” is paid or unpaid, or could be paid by the agency employing the “promotoras”.
· State law should be amended to make promotora services an integral part of publicly funded health insurance programs along the border.
By working with patients on follow-up care, providing house calls, and ensuring compliance, promotoras reduce acute care visits and increase prevention--both proven to be cost-cutting measures--in hard-to-reach communities in the Border region. Under a legislative directive, this concept could be required as a value-added service for health management organizations participating in health care delivery for Medicaid, Healthy Kids, or the federal Children's Health Insurance Program.
1. STUDY ENROLLMENT DEMAND AND PROPOSE PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS TO ACCOMMODATE ANY INCREASE IN DEMAND FOR HIGHER EDUCATION SERVICES, INCLUDING AN EXPANDED ROLE FOR PRIVATE AND NONPROFIT SECTORS IN
2. REVIEW AND APPROVE REQUESTS FROM THE
3. ENSURE COORDINATED COMPREHENSIVE INSTRUCTIONAL AND CAPITAL PLANNING BETWEEN PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS AND SYSTEMS INCLUDING TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS RELATED TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN ARIZONA TOWNS IN THE BORDER.
4. EXPLORE THE FEASIBILITY OF SELECTIVELY CONVERTING STRATEGICALLY LOCATED REGIONAL COMMUNITY COLLEGES INTO FOUR-YEAR STATE COLLEGES IN THE BORDER REGION.
5. EXPLORE THE FEASIBILITY OF LINKING THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF
6. ENCOURAGE THE DEVELOPMENT OF COORDINATED PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND DISTANCE LEARNING CAPABILITIES, INCLUDING THE UTILIZATION OF EXISTING FACILITIES THAT ARE PRIMARILY USED FOR KINDERGARTEN PROGRAMS AND PUPILS IN GRADES ONE THROUGH TWELVE FOR THE BORDER REGION.
7. PREPARE AN ANNUAL REPORT THAT SUMMARIZES ITS FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, INCLUDING ENROLLMENT TRENDS AND OTHER DATA, TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE, THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE GOVERNOR BY SEPTEMBER 1.
Sec. 2. Title 41, chapter 27, article 2,
41-3006.01 . Arizona higher education coordinating board; termination July 1, 2006
Members of the Greater Nogales and Santa Cruz County Port Authority met with representatives of the
REP. RAUL GRIJALVA INITIATIVE FOR THE BORDER REGION ENVIRONMENTAL AND CONSERVATION POLICIES TO BE ENHANCED.
Rep. Grijalva Introduces Legislation to Protect and
Wednesday June 06, 2007
The Borderlands Conservation and Security Act of 2007 will help mitigate damage to Federal and tribal lands from illegal border activity and border enforcement efforts by increasing coordination and planning between the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Federal land management agencies and tribes.
The legislation will also correct existing policies and allow the flexibility for a local approach to border security, instead of mandating an unrealistic and harmful wall.
“Current policy has driven crossing activity to remote isolated areas along the border, which in
The Borderlands Conservation and Security Act will:
1. Develop a Border Protection Strategy that supports border security efforts while also protecting federal lands;
2. Provide for flexibility rather than a one size fits all approach to border security by allowing experts at DHS to decide whether fences, virtual fences, border barriers or other options are the best way to address border security;
3. Allow land managers, local officials, and local communities to have a say in border security decisions;
4. Ensure that laws intended to protect air, water, wildlife, culture, and health and safety are fully complied with; and,
5. Fund initiatives that will help mitigate damage to borderland habitat and wildlife.
The Secure Fence Act and REAL ID promote a “one fence fits all” solution and hamper the ability of local experts to implement security measures that would be more effective and low-impact in the border environment. Constructing a fence along the border would be completely impractical over the rugged terrain of the mountains and deserts and would be disastrous to the fragile border ecosystem.
“This multi-disciplinary approach is the correct path to address the growing crisis in a rapidly changing geopolitical reality,” stated Grijalva. “The Borderlands Conservation and Security Act will strengthen border security and protect the environment by allowing all the agencies to work together cooperatively.”
Rep. Grijalva Reintroduces Legislation to Protect Tumamoc Hill, Other Lands in
Wednesday January 30, 2008
The legislation would allow the County to acquire Tumamoc Hill on Tucson’s west side and would take two private parcels into federal ownership that would then be added to the Las Cienegas National Conservation Area and Saguaro National Park’s west side unit. The new bill revises similar legislation from the 108th and 109th Congresses. The updated language adds the Bloom property, which will become part of
The land exchange involves four parcels of land. A 1,280 acre Bureau of Land Management parcel near Sahuarita would be exchanged for a 2,490 acre private parcel near Las Cienegas National Conservation Area, and the 160 acre Bloom parcel, also in private ownership at this time. As a condition of the exchange, the private developers receiving the BLM parcel would be required to pay the State of
"I'm proud to announce the reintroduction of this bill today, a bill that will permanently preserve important open space, especially Tumamoc Hill," Rep. Grijalva stated. "In my position as Chairman of the National Parks, Forests and Public Lands Subcommittee with jurisdiction over this matter, I plan to move the bill forward with a hearing early this year."
The legislation preserves the application of environmental protection laws such as the National Environmental Policy Act and the Endangered Species Act.
The University of Arizona (UA) just received a $1.5M federal earmark administered through the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set up a
The Border region between the
Lastly, the intensive use of pesticides in the Border region has resulted in increased exposure to organic contaminants such as organophosphates and organochlorines.
The environmental contaminants found in the Border region are the same ones that have already been the topic of research for many years as part of UA’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) – Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP). The outreach core of the SBRP has interacted with Mexican scientist for over ten years on resolving environmental health and contamination issues plaguing the Border. The concept for a
The UA has been active since then, seeking additional funds to support the
The latest funding addition is the $1,460,000 federal Congressional earmark announced here. This Special Appropriations from fiscal year 2005 will be administered through two EPA grants. The newly drafted strategic plan of the NIEHS for 2006-2011 has listed the development of a global health program as one of its seven major goals. The
The mission of the
· To increase the capacity of stakeholders to handle common environmental problems through student exchange and training workshops;
· To support collaborative research between investigators from the
· To promote technology transfer by training Mexican professionals with advanced techniques in disciplines such as toxicology and environmental engineering; and
· To sponsor specialized meetings were stakeholders and specialists can discuss local concerns regarding environmental health and environmental contaminants
The stated objectives will be met by the following
Training Fellowships: Scholarships will be available for Mexican Ph.D. students to enhance their capacity in environmental science, engineering, or toxicology.
Specialized Workshops/Meetings: These workshops target graduate students, environmental professionals, and university faculty interested in topics ranging from the bioremediation of environmental contaminants to the impacts of heavy metals on children.
Collaborative Projects: To address common environmental contamination problems within the Border region, the following collaborative studies will be undertaken:
· Arsenic and Health - Diabetes and Breast Cancer in the U.S.-Mexico Border
Long-Term Effects of Heavy Metals on Children’s Health
· Landfill Leachate Plumes - Characterization, natural attenuation, and bioremediation
· Mine Tailings – Characterization, phytostabilization and phytoremediation
Spanish Language Online Textbooks and Information Sheets: To further support capacity building and education outreach efforts within border communities, Spanish language textbooks and information sheets will be developed within environmental legislation, environmental engineering/science, and environmental toxicology.
Outreach to Border Communities: Bilingual community meetings on both sides of the Arizona-Sonora border will be organized as a forum for stakeholders to obtain information on local environmental and environmental health issues.
Who is involved? Principle investigators from six of UA’s colleges will be working together with Mexican scientists from 10 research institutes and universities as well as program officers from federal agencies (e.g. EPA Region 9).
UA Colleges involved:
Mexican Research Institutes and Universities:
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV)
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)
Universidad Autónoma de San Luís Potosí (UASLP)
Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango (UJED)
Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Torreón (UACT)
Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE)
Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora (ITSON)
Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM), Iztapalapa
Universidad de Sonora (USON)
Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (UAG)
Southwest Hazardous Waste Program
PO Box 210207, Tucson, AZ, USA 85721-0207
US-Mexico Binational Center for Environmental Studies and Toxicology
-Atlas de Arizona-Sonora: crecimiento y cambio en la región binacional
MONTO: $12,000 US
LÍDERES DEL PROYECTO: Vera Pavlakovich-Kochi, Pablo Wong González
INSTITUCIONES: University of Arizona y el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo
Este proyecto de colaboración binacional creó el primer atlas bilingüe electrónico de la región Arizona-Sonora, y estableció la presencia electrónica de la región. El proyecto presentó información coordinada e indicadores de la región. que ayudan en los procesos de toma de decisión y actividades generales relacionadas con las áreas sociales, económicas y de desarrollo sostenible de Arizona y Sonora. El E-Atlas proporciona un acceso fácil a una variedad de usuarios, incluyendo a agencias gubernamentales, negocios, comunidades, instituciones de educación e investigación, y organizaciones no-gubernamentales.
NEIGHBORING IN THE GLOBAL VILLAGE: NORTH AMERICAN COOPERATION AND COLLABORATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION. A CONTEXT FOR THE PROGRAM FOR NORTH AMERICAN MOBILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
$8 | 45pp. | 2002 | Pub. #2A347
Arizona Governor's Policy Priorities
Here's how the AMC is supporting Governor Napolitano's policy priorities...
The AMC shall:
's advocacy for the federal government to develop coordinated national policy for comprehensive immigration reform and to enhance information and intelligence exchange throughout the U.S.-Mexico region. Arizona
- Pioneer joint efforts to secure the Arizona-Mexico region with cross-border state and local government efforts, including implementing binational public safety initiatives that streamline law enforcement and communications systems to assist
Arizonaand when responding to disasters, fighting crime and preventing illegal immigration. Mexico
- Support creation and implementation of cross-border technology initiatives to strengthen collaboration between
Arizonaand to improve emergency and crime response times. Mexico
Expand Trade for
The AMC shall:
- Collaborate with
Mexicoon investments in security and safety at Arizona's ports of entry in order to make 's ports to the most advanced and efficient along the U.S.-Mexico border. Arizona
- Develop strategies to increase
's global competitiveness by increasing efficiency at our ports of entry, creating cross-border private sector connections, and collaborating with agencies and organizations in the public and private sectors to coordinate policy for secure, lawful international trade. Arizona
Promote Regional Economic Development
The AMC shall:
- Coordinate, facilitate and manage special projects and research opportunities as they relate to
Arizona's global competitiveness relative to other U.S.-Mexico , and develop binational investment initiatives and opportunities to strengthen our border region and stimulate the economies along the U.S.-Mexico border. border states
- Assist counties and municipalities, including border communities, in facilitating sustainable economic development.
- Support development of a global brand for
Arizona, through our relationship with , to raise foreign and domestic capital for our economy and foster business innovation for the region. Mexico
- Help organize community partnerships that will stimulate new technologies, markets and approaches to cross-border economic development that promotes smart, sustainable growth to benefit our residents.
Quality of Life
The AMC shall:
- Commission studies and research to assess trends and develop solutions as necessary for current and future needs the Arizona-Mexico Region.
- Promote intelligent community development, focusing on quality education, healthcare, safety, security infrastructure and economic development.
- Support implementation of the State's plan for a future that capitalizes on innovation and technology in our schools, promotes regional healthy life style programs, improves our ports of entry, and develops transportation systems to accommodate the needs of ourselves and our children.
Cultural Enrichment in the Region
The AMC shall:
- Maintain existing cultural exchanges between
Arizonaand . Mexico
- Develop and implement educational programs that honor our diversity, but focus on the uniting principle that while we are many lands, many people, many faiths, we are One Region.
- Expand opportunities, through partnerships with binational art and cultural organizations, for regional artists to participate in events and publicly share their work locally, regionally, nationally and internationally.
- Continue to share and raise awareness of artistic and cultural history of our region by promoting cross-border teaching by regional artists throughout classrooms in
Arizonaand . Mexico
Governors Increase Emergency Help, Fight Border Violence
AMC Media Release
Media Contact: Nancy Dueñas
Ph: (602) 542-1346
June 23, 2008
For Immediate Release
GOVERNORS INCREASE EMERGENCY HELP, FIGHT BORDER VIOLENCE
International partnerships improve border security, quality of life, infrastructure
PHOENIX - Governor Janet Napolitano and Sonoran Governor Eduardo Bours Castelo signed eight agreements addressing drug and weapon trafficking, felony fugitives, emergency response and border infrastructure in the Arizona-Sonora region at the Arizona-Mexico Commission's (AMC) 2008 Summer Plenary Session.
"As neighbors, collaboration is essential to our success in combating issues affecting the region," said Governor Napolitano. "Not only will partnerships advance our global competitiveness, but more importantly it will improve the quality of life for Arizonans and Sonorans."
To expand cooperation between
- Expansion of eTrace - Provides a secure Web based method to effectively and efficiently trace firearms recovered in crimes and reduce the number of illegal weapons moving through
. The U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) will provide training to Sonoran police on how to identify guns, ammunition and explosives; recover obliterated serial numbers on guns; and record the information. Arizona
- Expansion of State Fugitive and Felony Detail - Builds upon the directive from Governor Napolitano to the Arizona Department of Public Safety to develop a task force to identify and catch fugitives in
. Now the mission includes fugitives in both states with intelligence sharing and training between Arizona Arizonaand law enforcement. The agreement also addresses the extradition issues to enhance the return of criminals to the appropriate state for prosecution. Sonora
- Illegal Narcotics Agreement - Shares intelligence between officials in both states regarding drug trafficking organizations that use
Arizonaas a gateway into the This program will allow the U.S. to prosecute Mexican nationals arrested on American soil for smuggling narcotics. U.S.
- AZ3D Agreement - Spurs the exploration of sharing cross-border geospatial information among first responders, homeland security personnel and emergency managers during a crisis.
- Border Emergency Agreement - Allows for the closest response team to provide help to citizens on either side of the border in emergency situations.
- 2015 Border Infrastructure Plan -Supports full cross-border coordination and cooperation for all Port of Entry projects and will educate stakeholders about the growth in commercial traffic at border entry points.
- Health Highways Agreement - Increases community awareness of the public health problem and better protect the residents of this region by coordinating the sharing of educational information regarding highway safety and promoting the coordination of education campaigns.
- Tri-National Emergency Response Plan - Provides emergency notification and communication, routine emergency planning and cross-border emergency planning, coordinated between the states of
Arizonaand and the Tohono O'odham Nation. Sonora
During this year's plenary, Professional Medical Transportation (PMT) Ambulance donated an ambulance to
The AMC Plenary Session united approximately 500 people. Governors Napolitano and Bours met with public and private sector business leaders, legislators, policy influencers and community leaders from
The Arizona-Mexico Commission (AMC) is connecting communities and changing business in the Arizona-Sonora region. For media information, please contact Nancy Dueñas, assistant director of marketing and communications for the Arizona-Mexico Commission at (602) 542-1346, or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. We are the bridge between cross-border entities of common interest in the governmental, business and academic communities. Visit the AMC online at http://www.azmc.org/.
Governors Work To Stop Flow Of Guns, Fugitives
AMC Media ReleaseMedia Contact: Nancy Dueñas Ph: (602) 542-1346 E-mail: email@example.com Web: http://www.azmc.org/
June 21, 2008 For Immediate Release
New Security Agreements Signed
"Violence at the international border affects all of us," said Governor Napolitano. "These new plans allow an unprecedented level of cooperation between law enforcement officers on both sides of the border."
The first agreement, "eTrace," allows an exchange of training and information to effectively and efficiently trace firearms used to commit crimes on either side of the border. The agreement expands on the work of the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms (ATF) regarding how to identify guns, ammunition, and explosives; recover obliterated serial numbers on guns; and to use the secure web-based program to record and exchange the information.
The existing program has already been effective: in 2007, 238 weapons - confiscated at crime scenes in
"Our strong partnership with
The second agreement builds on the felony fugitive warrant task force (VCAT, or Violent Criminal Apprehension Team) created by Governor Napolitano in May. That Executive Order focused on tracking down violent felons in
The Governors took their action as part of the 2008 Summer Plenary Session of the Arizona-Mexico Commission. AMC was established in 1959 with the goal to facilitate cross-border communication, cooperation and development to improve the quality of life on both sides of the international border.
List of Web Site Resources put together by the AMC
The AMC assumes no responsibility for the content or maintenance of the following sites. Rather, we have merely provided an avenue for you to visit sites that address contemporary Arizona-Mexico related issues. If you have any questions, or suggestions for additional links, please click here:
Arizona Border Infrastructure Project (BIP)
Border Related Organizations
Border Governor's Conference
Center for Arizona/Sonora Regional Tourism Development
Office of Economic Development,
Office of Economic Development,
Office of Pan American Initiatives,
Government and International Agencies U.S.
THOMAS Federal Legislation Tracking
Inter-American Development Bank
International Monetary Fund
North American Development Bank
Mexico: Economic and Financial Indicators
Bolsa Mexicana de Valores
Consejo Nacional de la Industria Maquiladora de Exportación
Cámara de Diputados
Cámara de Senadores
Comisión Reguladora de Energía (CRE)
Consulate General of
Presidencia de la Republica
State of Coahuila
State of Jalisco
State of Nayarit
State of Nuevo
State of Sinaloa
State of Tamaulipas
- Arizona-Sonora Manufacturing Initiative
P.O. Box 8163 Scottsdale, AZ 85252-8163
ARIZONA AND HAVE TO WORK AS A REGION SONORA
“It’s because we have to work as a region”
August 4th, 2008 by Wendy Vittori
In a pair of interviews appearing in The
Gov. Napolitano’s comments pointed to eight agreements have been enacted between
These comments from both governors are aligned with our viewpoint at ASMI - that there is significant unrealized opportunity available in our region from working hard to find ways to capitalize on complementary skills and capabilities between the two states. By seeing our border as an opportunity, the perspective can and will change to how to innovate and create a differentiated position that will benefit residents and businesses. This is particularly true at the present moment when the costs, both financial and environmental, from a massive and still growing reliance on offshore manufacturing has snapped into focus due to soaring fuel costs.
The momentum from this shift in perspective can and will inject new energy and increased resources to assist in meeting many of the more familiar challenges — if we put our attention here. The real challenge may be this — to what extent are we, as residents of this region, ready to embrace the positive opportunities that clearly exist, roll up our sleeves, and invest together to bring our region to a next level of prosperity?
For the full text of these interviews, see
North American Transborder Studies Center
Phone: (480) 965-1846 | Fax: (480) 965-6149 | firstname.lastname@example.org
What are the economic and cultural impacts of having an immigrant population? What are the best ways to move goods across
These and many other questions will drive the work of a new tri-national center headquartered at ASU.
The North American Center for Transborder Studies (NACTS) brings together research faculty from
According to ASU officials, it is the only organization of its kind.
“To our knowledge, no other center in North America focuses attention on the three North American countries,” says Alan Artibise, executive dean of the
The North American Center for Transborder Studies exemplifies ASU President Michael Crow's vision for ASU to forge partnerships with peer institutions around the world and make an institutional commitment to global engagement.
“ASU's faculty is poised to look at what may seem like ‘old' questions in new and challenging ways, with transdisciplinary collaboration,” says Amira De la Garza, acting director of the North American Center for Transborder Studies. “The idea of addressing the concept of North American collaboration is challenging and has aroused a growing number of scholars on ASU's campuses to look at border issues in ways that are innovative and progressive – with the promise of contributing to global scholarship that is embedded in the communities affected by the very issues we address. Although we're ‘on the border' literally, so to speak, it's the new intellectual entrepreneurial attitude that we're trying to shape that makes ASU the type of institution where such a project can root itself and grow.”
The center will provide multiple perspectives and have four key policy areas of research:
• Immigration and social policy – From the economic and cultural effects of international migration to balancing concerns about justice and security, NACTS is committed to advancing research on 21st century legal, institutional and policy issues on borders.
• Health and quality of life – The center embraces the challenge of working with governmental agencies and community-based organizations to research, discuss and make efforts to improve the health and quality of life of border populations.
• Environmental issues across borders – NACTS joins a host of other agencies and nonprofits in researching environmental issues and it will work with its partners to provide public forums that address and respond to the need for sustainable development.
• Social and cultural issues of border regions – NACTS is committed to scholarship that delves into the unique nature of social problems affecting border populations. Research will examine notions of hybridity while simultaneously considering complex cultural histories.
Additionally, NACTS is building a research focus on economics and transportation, led by Stephen Blank, advisory board member and research fellow, and professor of international business and management at
NACTS has established an advisory board under the leadership of board chair Raul Rodríguez, former chief executive officer of North American Development Bank. One of the first activities will be the board's inaugural meeting this semester.
NACTS also is collaborating with Colegio de la Frontera (COLEF), a Tijuana-based think tank, and
Three faculty representatives and advisory board members of the North American Center for Transborder Studies – Carlos Vélez-Ibáñez from ASU, Daniel Drache from York University and Rodolfo Cruz Piñeiro, president of COLEF – will present their visions of the collaborative work ahead at the international conference.
For more information, visit the NACTS Web site at (www.asu.edu/clas/nacts).
Sharon Keeler, email@example.com
As a New American University,
Our highly collaborative work brings significant, transdisciplinary human capital to bear on a number of key North American issues. NACTS' activities are focused on four key areas of engagement:
NACTS actively engages policymakers in
By working with multiple partners on projects to enhance environmental quality, ecological integrity and sustainability the
ASU plays key role in Homeland Security project
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has selected
The establishment of the center by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security follows more than two years of work assembling a team of
Research at the center will focus on new technologies such as surveillance, screening, data fusion and situational awareness using sensors, unmanned aerial vehicles and other technologies. The center will also provide research on population dynamics, immigration administration and enforcement, operational analysis, control and communications, immigration policy, civic integration and citizenship, border risk management and international governance.
Educational programs will include training programs to develop science, technology and management solutions to prepare the next generation of border security professionals while further enhancing the skills of personnel currently in the field. The center will also provide tools and practices that can be rapidly deployed to end users.
“This partnership demonstrates the
Rick Van Schoik, who is the director of ASU’s
“ASU has tremendous expertise in areas which directly relate to borders, security and immigration,” said Van Schoik. “This partnership will result in multi-university, multi-disciplinary approaches to long standing and complex challenges.”
Skip Derra, firstname.lastname@example.org
North American Awareness: main facts of
Canada, USA and . Mexico
Land and Population:
% of population
% of population
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9,971,000 sq km
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9,373,000 sq km
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1,973,000 sq km
| || |
Migration in the
Legal permanent residents from Canada
Legal permanent residents from Mexico
SOURCE: Migration Policy Institute